Renewable Energy

Renewable energy is the energy which is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on an individual’s timescale, like daylight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat. Renewable energy typically provides energy in four vital areas: electricity generation, air and water heating/cooling,

The natural processes which are perpetually replenished are the origin of the  « renewable energy ». In its numerous forms, it derives directly from the sun, or heat generated deep inside the earth.

Renewable energy resources and essential opportunities for energy potency exist over vast geographical areas, in distinction to different energy sources, that are focused in a minimal number of nations. Fast deployment of renewable energy and energy potency and technological diversification of energy sources would end in important energy security and economic advantages. It might additionally scale back environmental pollution like air pollution caused by burning of fossil fuels and improve public health, scale back premature mortalities because of pollution and save associated health prices that amount to many hundred billion dollars annually solely within the U.S… The sources of the renewables energies like wind or hydro, which derive their energy directly or indirectly from the sun should be durable enough to supply us for the next billion of years. Furthermore, the predicted increase in heat from the Sun is anticipated to create the surface of the world too hot for liquid water to exist afterwards.

Wind Power

The wind is employed to produce electricity using the kinetic energy created by air in motion. This can be transformed into electricity using wind turbines or wind energy conversion systems. Wind initial hits a turbine’s blades, causing them to rotate and turn the rotary engine connected to them. That changes the kinetic energy to rotational energy, by moving a shaft that is connected to a generator, and thereby manufacturing electricity through electromagnetism.

Advanced utility-scale wind turbines vary from around 600 kW to 9 MW of rated power. The ability offered from the wind is a function of the cube of the wind speed, therefore as wind speed will increase, power output will increase up to the highest production for the particular rotary engine. Wind farms are preferably located wherever winds are stronger and more constant, like offshore and high-altitude sites. Most of the time, full load hours of wind turbines vary between sixteen and fifty-seven percentages annually, however, could be higher in significantly favourable offshore sites.

Globally, the long-run technical potential of wind energy is believed to be five times total current world energy production, or forty times electricity demand, assuming all sensible barriers required were overcome. The best scenario would be to build wind turbines over large areas, notably in areas of higher wind resources, like offshore. As offshore wind speeds average ~90% bigger than that of land, therefore offshore ones would contribute considerably more energy than land-stationed turbines.


The basic principle of hydropower is exploiting the water stream’s strength to drive turbines. Hydropower plants incorporate two basic configurations: with dams and reservoirs, or without. Hydropower dams with a large reservoir will store water over short or long periods to satisfy peak demand. The facilities may also be divided into smaller dams for various functions, like night or day use, seasonal storage, or pumped-storage reversible plants, for both pumping and electricity generation. Hydropower without dams and reservoirs suggests that manufacturing at a smaller scale, generally from a facility designed to work in a river while not meddling in its flow. For this reason, many think about small-scale hydro a more environmentally-friendly choice.


Hydroelectricity is the application of hydropower produces electricity. It is the primary use of hydropower nowadays. Hydroelectric power plants will include a reservoir (generally created by a dam) to take advantage of the energy of falling water or will use the mechanical energy of water as in run-of-the-river hydroelectricity.
It may also be used to store energy under the form of potential energy between two reservoirs at different heights with pumped-storage hydroelectricity. Water is pumped uphill into reservoirs during times of low demand to be discharged for generation once the needs are high or the system generation is low.

Solar Energy

Solar energy, beaming light and warmth from the sun, is harnessed employing a multitude of ever-evolving technologies like solar heating, photovoltaics, concentrated solar power (CSP), concentrator photovoltaics (CPV), solar design and artificial photosynthesis.
Passive solar techniques enhance the harnessing process, like choosing materials with favourable thermal mass or lightweight dispersing properties, orienting the building to the Sun and selecting areas that naturally circulate air. Active solar technologies include solar thermal energy, exploiting solar collectors for heating, and solar power, converting daylight into electricity either directly using photovoltaics (PV), or indirectly using concentrated solar power (CSP).


A photovoltaic system converts light into direct electrical current (DC) by taking advantage of the photoelectric result. Solar PV has become a multi-billion, flourishing business, continues to enhance its cost-effectiveness, and has the foremost potential of any renewable technologies beside CSP. Concentrated solar power (CSP) systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus an ample space of daylight into a small beam. Industrial concentrated solar power plants were first developed within the Nineteen Eighties. CSP-Stirling has by far the very best potency among all solar energy technologies.

Geothermal Energy

High-Temperature heat energy is from thermal energy generated and stored within the Earth. Thermal energy is the energy that determines the temperature of matter. Earth’s heat energy originates from the initial formation of the planet and radioactive decay of minerals (Probably in equal proportion but this is still being verified). The never-ending conduction of thermal energy is driven from the core to the surface following a geothermal gradient. The adjective geothermal originates from the Greek root geo, which means earth, and thermos, which means heat.

Nearly everywhere, the shallow ground or upper five meters of the surface maintains an almost constant temperature around 15°C. Geothermal heat pumps will tap into this resource to heat and cool buildings. A geothermal heat pump system consists of setup, an air delivery system (ductwork), and a heat exchanger-a system of pipes buried within the shallow ground close to the habitation. When the winter has come, the heat is pumped from the warmth exchanger to the indoor air delivery system. Whereas in the summer, we are seeing the contrary: The heat is captured from the indoor air to the warmth exchanger, and can be re-used for hot water.


Biomass regroups any biological material from living or recently dead organisms. It most frequently refers to plants or plant-derived materials that are specifically known as lignocellulosic biomass. As an energy supply, biomass will either be used directly via combustion to provide heat or indirectly when converting it to different kind of biofuels. The transformation of biomass into biofuels can be done with different approaches that are classified into thermal, chemical, and biochemical methods. Wood remains the most used biomass energy source today; it includes forest residues – like dead trees, branches, wood chips. Biomass includes plant or animal which may be regenerated into fibres or alternative industrial chemicals, together with biofuels. Industrial biomass is grown from various styles of plants, along with miscanthus, switchgrass, hemp, corn, poplar, willow, sorghum, sugarcane, bamboo, and a range of tree species, starting from eucalyptus to oil palm (palm oil).

Plant energy is made by crops specifically grown to be used as fuel that gives high biomass output per area unit with low input energy. The grain is used for liquid transportation fuels, whereas the straw is burned to supply heat or electricity. Plant biomass also can be degraded from cellulose to glucose through a series of chemical treatments, and also the ensuing sugar will then be used as a first-generation biofuel.

Biomass is converted to alternative usable forms of energy like methane gas or transportation fuels like ethanol and biodiesel. Decaying garbage, and agricultural and excrement, all release methane gas – also known as landfill gas or biogas. Crops, like corn and sugarcane, are often fermented to produce the transportation fuel, ethanol. Biodiesel, another transportation fuel, is made from left-over food product like vegetable oils and animal fats.